Albanian architecture of Karabagh.
Karabagh is the most beuatiful and plenty land of Azerbaijan Republic. History of Karabagh starts from its deep anciency - land between two rivers Kura and Arax is one of most ancient centres of civilisation. There are a lot of facts which allow to suppose that this territory together with areas of the Meditteranean countries and Africa included in zone of humanity’s motherland, that here also was a development of human being, as biosocial and social creature. And just here, in Azikh cave, were discovered the most ancient signs of life and human’s activity. Owing to materials, discovered discovered in this cave, we start our history from very ancient period - age of ancient stony century (paleolith), more than 1 million years before. In Azikh was discovered a fragment of woman’s jaw, lived approximately 350-400 thousand years before, what has a great significance. No doubt, that creators of Azikh culture already had mentality and developing speech, and also some elements of spiritual culture. Azikh human (azikhantrop) already knew what is the fire, arithmetic, had some initial notions about environment, at the base of which the religion originates. We have a suffiecient base to suppose, that azikhantrop has more than 300 hundred years before cosmological observations and etc. Karabakh’s culture of Bronze Age and early Iron Age is reflected in funeral monuments. Monuments of this period prove close contacts wit southern countries. Bronze century brought many important changes. Especially it is seen from labour production increase. Develops half nomadic stock-breeding , crop-growing, craft, especially metallurgical production, ceramic work and etc. Second half of II- beginning of I thousand year B.C. - late Bronze Age and beginning of Iron century at the territory of Southern Caucusus, characterised by prosperity of metallurgy of the region which we are interested in, which stood in one range with metallurgical centres of Ancient East. This time of primitive society’s decay and transition to early class relations in Karabagh zone. From number of most important and very interesting funeral monuments can be named Khojali, Archadzorski, Akhmakhinskiy burial-mound grave, Karabulag necropolis and others. War passes the same time together with stock-breeding, crop-growing and craft one of the main occupations of region’s population. More fast rates are developing relations with Front Asia’s countries. In graves of this period of time are discovered gold goods, obects made from mother-of-pearl and elephant’s ivory, glazed vessels, cylindrical stamps, frozen beads, and at last, famous agate bead with a name of assirian kung Adadnerari, related, to the end of XIV-beginning XIII century A.D. In the beginning of I century B.C in south-western surroundings of Karabagh comes a new power-urarti. But they couldn’t capture Karabagh. They suppose, that western part of Karabagh in urart sources was called Urtekhe-Urtekhini. To be correctly supposition about the fact that later name of the zone - Arcakh comes from Urtekhe, then, in spite of armenian authors’ affirmations, it is completely indisputable , that it (name Arcakh) is not armenian, although because of the fact that during this period and later on there were no any armenians. In midian-akhamenidian age power of midians, and later Persians spreaded in South-Eastern Trans-Caucasus, including Karabakh. Range of circumstances allows to suppose, that this picture leads to midian age. That is why it is impossible not to agree with compilers of «Historical Information» (Upper Karabagh, Yerevan, 1988), that Arcakh, where lived utis, was located in «complement of Yerevandid Armeniya». For this fact they do not have any reasons. There are also no any facts to consider that even later (in IV century B.C ) Karabagh zone was a part of Armenia. If it would be so, in this case persian satrap of Midiya Atropat wouldn’t have any possiblity to manage sakesins, populated in the land between two rivers Kura and Terter. And meanwhile it is know, that in Gavgamel fight (last third IV century B.C.)midians, whom managed Atropat, were united «with kadusians, albans and sakesins». Atropat and Atropatids controled these regions, evidently, accoridng to traditions and being political successors of midian and persian rulers. History catches Albanian tribes not only on the left coast of Kura, but also at the territory of the right coast. Speaking about ethnical population’s belonging of Central and Eastern Trans-Caucasus in ancient age, it is important to note, that alhtough the zone during that period was out of written sources, we have no facts, in accordance with specialists’ opinion, to think that before north-eastern-caucasian languages in this region were spreaded any other languages. For the last time more insistantly and more probably into north-eastern-caucasian language family, which composed from four and five branches, except khurrit, urart, and also nakh-dagestan languages, include some languages of Small Asia, Cyprus and Lemnos islands and others. Therefore etrus is also related here. There are some reasons to relate this family kutiy language - ancient population of Southern Azerbaijan and some adjacent regions. Also to this family relate the language of native population of Caucasian Albania -Albanian, which usually identificated with utiy (udiy) language. Speaking about ethnolanguage belonging of Albanians, it is necessary to note, that ancient writers, describing them, mark their beauty, high height, light hairs and grey eyes. Two last features-distinctive characteristics of ancient aborigen population, so called caucausian type, widely presented at present time in mountanious regions of Caucausian isthmus. And only one this feature allows to consider Albanians native population - autokhtons of South-Eastern Caucausus. All this mentioned above confirmed by others, particularly, archeological and language materials, and also historical tradition, connecting Albanians with utians - udians, speaking one of north-eastern-caucasian languages. Albanian tribes, as it is definitely testify archeology’s data, couldn’t come from outside not at the end of II, not beginning I thousand B.C, when in areas of Trans-Caucasus start establishing major cultur-ethnical units, including, as we suppose, - protoalbanian tribe union. It is important to note, that archeological cultures of Central and Eastern Trans-Caucases in age of late Bronze and early Iron were very close to each other and sharply distinguished about synchronic culture of Western Trans-Caucasus. All this is definitely signals establishment of bases of tribes union at the base of part of nakh-dagestan-khurrit tribes groups, about origin of conturs of future Albanian unity of tribes. Nothing confirms, that khodjali-kedabek, nakhichevan, talysh-mugan, kayakent-khorochoev cultures of Azerbaijan, connection of which with cultures preceded and consequent ages on the territory of Albania is indisputable, were brought to Azerbaijan or, that development of these ethnocultural units on the territory of Albania was stopped by processes of migrations, natural phenomenon and etc. To this north-eastern-caucasian languages family also is related the language of native population of Caucasian Albania, including Garabaga-utiy (udiy), with which is identificated the language of Albanians. As we do not have written memorials, which can consider Albanian, question about Albanian language can be decided only with the aid of indirect materials, data about uddins, uddin language and some other materials. It is undoubt, that modern udins, living in Kabalin (before Kutkashen) region, are heirs of utis -otens, about whom first informs Herodot, according to his data, they were included in XIV satrapiya of Akhemenid Power. Utis, as their neighbours, miki (muki), come out to historical arena in first quarter of V century B.C. , participating in Kserx march to Greece. Utiya area (Otena, Utik), located on the right coast of Kura, on the territory of Karabagh (approximately modern Barda-Imishli zone up to Arax), was one of most important areas of Caucasian Albania. No doubt that utis of Herodot - it is one of Albanian tribes (usually, as it was marked out before identificated with Albanians) utis-otens-uddins, lived in ancient time and in middle ages in Utita and neighbour areas. Also in period of middle ages the populate on very significant territory. In Karabagh uddins are testified in XIX century. At present time this tribe is about 6-7 thousand people live n Kabalin region. «Father of Armenian History» Movses Khorenaci considered utis as a tribe, comes from Aran - legendary ancestor - eponim aloan, i.e. Albanians. He wrote: «they say from descendants of Aran origin tribes - utiyns, gardmans, codeys and Gargar principality...» It is very important, that historical tradition, particularly armenian (and this fact is very important!), co-ordinates modern uddins with ancient Albanians, and uddins themselves up to recent times remembered, that according to origin - they are Albanians. In known letter for the name of Peter the First they wrote: «...we agvans (i.e. Albanians. ) are uttis by nation. Belonging of udins to dagestan group of north-eastern-caucasian languages family at present time is indisputable. In such a way Albanian language should be related to called language family, especially, that there are enough facts testifying hypothesis about uddin belonging of famous mingechaur inscriptions, language of which can be only Albanian - language of rulling tribe in Albania. Thus, all mentioned above allows to announce, that Albanians, speaking language and dialects of north-eastern-caucasian language family, people who spoke this language populated from Nothern Caucasus and till islands of Aegean sea are autokhons of south-eastern Trans-Caucasus. It can not be said about armenians and armenian language, which could appear in areas of Trans-Caucasus (until not Garabagh) not earlier the age of expasionist wars of Artaxiy and Zariadriy, i.e. after II century B.C. All importunate affirmations of armenian nationalist scientists of culture in different suits about «autoakhton» of armenians and armenian language in Trans-Caucasus do not have any relation to the science and is considered as falcification. Now it is known that Armenia is not a motherland of armenian ethnos. History catches armenian tribes far away from Armenia. Authoritative scientists (particularly I.M Dyakonov), suppose, that ancient armenian nation turned out to Upper Euphrates valley approximately II –first I thousand B.C. For the short period of time armenians, moved to wider territory, capture it and assimilate population. Thus, in 11-1 B.C was created «Great Armenia». Armenian Aggression couldn’t be inperceptible by Strabon, who wrote: «…Armenia, before was a small country, increased by wars of Artaksiy and Zariadriy…They together widened their domains, reduced part of areas of surrounded nations, and precisely: they took away from midians (atropatens. – editor) Caspiana, Favnitida and Basoropedu; from ibers – foothills of Pariadra, Khorzen and Xerkxen, from kataons – Akilisen and area around Antitavra: and from sirians – Taropitilu. So already at the dawn of their history armenians acting according to their ethical social-psychological character, robbing their neighbors, conquering their lands, and this evidently aggressive process in spite of obvious facts armenian scientists try to represent it as “ unification of armenian speaking areas” . Armenian expansion in different periods spreaded around and to some Trans-Caucasian areas. However Karabagh in age of creation “Great Armenia” in II-I c B.C was not conquered by armenians. And in I-IV c “Great Armenia” couldn’t lead afessive politics, as it was itself in alternative dependence now Rome now Parfia. Armenian in the whole range of considerations couldn’t be , of course, autokhtons of Karabagh zone. Last odontologist investigations once more testify that as a fact of matter armenians on the territory of Karabagh - an element absolutely alien. The fact that armenians by considerable mass moved to Karabagh in late age, after completion of russian-iranian and russian-turkish wars in 20-30 XIX c., is testified by many written sources, and also armenians themselves, it seems, up to recent time didn’t reject it, as in 1978 in Mardakert was established monument in honor of 150 anniversary installation of armenians to this district of Azerbaijan. True, later figure “150” was scraped off the monument. That zone of Karabagh (right coast of Kura) was conquered by armenians and was a constituent part of Albanian state, established approximately in III c B.C. testify the words of armenian author Movses Khorenani that Arap (legendary ancestor of albans) inherited the whole Albanian plain with its mountainous part ..., from river Eraskh (i.e. Arax - Editor) till fortress called Khnarakert (Astafa-Kazakh zone - Editor) “ and that from descendants of Arap arised tribes - utis, gardmans, tsodeys and Gargar princedom. From numerous tribes mentioned above utis and tsavdeys - undoubtedly, and gargars - almost undoubtedly populated territory of Karabagh, on the right coast of Kura. That’s why affirmation of many armenian scientists about the fact that border of “ Great Armenia” passed by Kura is lie. Excluding accident attacks, and possibly, temporary captures of any albanian territories by Armenia, Albania I-IV c.., south borders of which passed by river Kura, owned by land between Kura and Arax. At the end of antiquity Karabagh zone remained ethnically and politically uti-albanian area of independent Albanian state. Colonization and armenization of population on this territory - are late facts, which were described by academicians I.A. Orbeli, S.T. Yeremyan and other scientists. S.T. Yeremyan wrote: “Great number of Christian monuments, significant part of which related to before - Arabic period, saved in armenisied part of ancient Albania on the territories of ancient albanian areas Artsakh (autonomous area of Upper Karabagh and neighborly north-eastern spurs of Maly Caucasus, including Shamshadil and Idjivan districts of Armenian S.S.R) and Utik, where at present time basically live armenian population”. Academician I.A. Orbeli wrote plainly about capture by “armenian feudals” areas of Upper Karabagh. Completely indisputable, that present armenian speaking population of Upper Karabagh, except those, which were resettled here in XIX c - these are no armenians but descendants of armenisied albanian population. This truth was well known to educated people already in XIX c. V.L. Velichenko wrote on this fact: “An exception was wrong called by armenians citizens of Karabagh., confessing armenian-grigorian faith... and armenisied only three-four centuries ago”. In political attitude zone of Upper Karabakh in I-VI c was indisputably under authority of albanian Arshakids, and in VII-VIII c - great princes Mikhraneeds. In the beginning of VIII c in result of arabian conquer albanian princedom fell. Tragically events of this period, active participant of which was armenian church, started progressive de-etisation of albanian ethos and grigorianisation, and later armenisation of part of population of Upper Karabagh zone. But albanian spirit was alive and thanks to this fact already in IX c Albanian princedom particularly was re-established and precisely on the territory of Upper Karabagh. In XII-XIII c in zone of Artsakh and Uti had been raising Khachen princedom, which, as trully considered by academician I.A. Orbeli , “was a part of ancient Albania”. Brilliant development of this princedom, ruler of which was called also “prince of Albania”, “surroundings’ ruler of Albania”, comes to the time of Hasan Jalal (1215-1261). It was a time of albanian renascence. Precisely in times of Hasan Jalal’s ruling was built majestic Gandzasar monastery complex, later converted into “patronal cathedral of Albania”, which armenians claim as armenian monument. It is important that in official documents of XVIII c were used such wordusages: “patriarch of saint great Kantsesar (Gandzasar -Editor) throne Agvan countries (Albanian - Editor).” It is very interesting that armenian author XVIII c Arakel Tavrizskiy names Karabagh “Country of Agvaees” (i.e. albanians - Editor). Ethical assimilation of grigorianised and in definite measure of armenisied population (that was a result of when arabians ended with sovereignty of Albania, and albanian church was under authority of armenian) mountainous Karabagh happened later. From all mentioned above comes indisputable conclusion, that so called armenians of Karabagh and properly azerbaijanians (which are descendants of albanian population) of North Azerbaijan are half brothers. And those and others - are completely undoubtedly former albanians and already that is why armenians for the territory of Upper Karabagh, where they moved by great mass after first quarter XIX c., do not have any rights. In age of middle ages zone of Upper Karabagh was included into azerbaijanian Karabagh (Ganja) beglyarbekstvo (princedom). From middle of XVIII till beginning of XIXc. on the territory of Karabagh existed azerbaijanian Karabagh khanate with suprematiya of azerbaijanians-”moslems”. Karabagh had been joined to Russia not like armenian land, but as “moslem” property, what was testified in documents of those times. Creature in soviet times of UKAA was planned in advance by far-seeing armenian nationalists. This was a bomb of slow action, installed in the heart of azerbaijanian nation, tragically consequences of which our nation experienced repeatedly, and especially - last eight years of undeclared war. Started from age of early middle ages armenians not only try by different tricks “to prove”, that Karabagh - is armenian land, but also make various attempts to conquer these our long-standing lands. Next attempt was done in the beginning of 1988... Undeclared war started. Armenians conquered not only territory of Upper Karabagh, but a lot of adjacent to it lands. Sacred war is going on. Armenians behave themselves on conquered territories like real robbers and bandits. Breaking regulations of UNESCO, they barbarianly destroy our monuments. It is enough to say that conquered Shusha armenians destroyed a lot. They not only destroyed monuments to Uzeir Gadjibekov, Bul-Bul, Natavan, but brutally shooted these monuments. These monuments were liberated from captivity owing to georgians and presently are in Art Museum. On the monuments are shown traces of brutality ... traces of numerous sub-machine guns and rifles bullets. Wise, peacemaking politics of President G.A. Aliyev allow to hope for soonest liberation of all azerbaijanian territories from armenian occupants and celebration of justice and peace on Karabagh land, on the whole territory of our republic. Truth is ours. Upper Karabagh - long-standing azerbaijanian land. Karabagh was and will be our land, in spite of all efforts and intrigues of our enemies. Monuments of Architecture Ancient land of Karabagh is very important hearth of Azerbaijan’s civilization, where was formatted monumental memorials of architecture of great artistic and historical value for different purposes. Creators of these works of art, which were created in trade-handicraft cities and settlements on wide territory of the country, participated in complicated process of architecture formation of Middle East and by this way they brought weighty contribution into the treasury of world construction art. Monuments of ancient construction art of Karabagh, scrupulously and comprehensively studied during last decades, showed that they have significance in complicated cultural-historical process and take important place in architecture of azerbaijanianian nation. Successfully taken by scientists-historians, archeologists, architectures great systematic works on exposure, fixation and dimensions, deep study and restoration, with consequent regular publication of valuable results of these works created a base, leaning on which it will be necessary to continue scientific research and widely, deeply, introducing into range of monuments of national architectural -construction culture of the past more new masterpieces of our far ancestors - nameless experts, working under command of talented architectures. On the territory of Karabagh region of Azerbaijan located great number of monuments of moslem architecture and Caucasian Albania. These - are fortresses, palaces, mausoleums, mosques, monasteries, temples, caravansaries, bath-houses, bridges and people’s habitable houses. (pic. 1) In this work we will pay attention on unique architectural monuments of Caucasian Albania Karabagh - complexes of structure of Agopan monastery in Lachin district, Khotavank monastery in Kelbajar district, Amarass monastery in Khodjavend district, monastery of saint Elysee and Gandzasar monastery in Agderen district of Azerbaijan. Complex of Agoglan monastery. To the number of most interesting culted structures related significant on dimensions temple of monasterial complex near river Agoglan in Lachin district (pic.2, 3). Temple’s right-angled basilica has more significant dimensions. Two ranges from eight square supporting, columns-pylons divide internal space into three sections. Central, having four meters bay, section is twice more than lateral. Its height is also significant. All sections of praying hall blocked by arches of cylindrical forms, carried out from thoroughly cutted and durably brought to each other stones. Three sectional in plan building has a stretch proportion. Main section with big half rounded apsid and altar in bay and two narrow lateral sections with right-angled official premises-side-chapels located on both sides of altar niche. On big half - compasses form strong aperture of apsid located three narrow arched apertures, marking compositional center of temple. Monumental building of basilica, built from compact local stone - gray basalt, harmonizes with its severe environment beautiful itself mountainous land. Smooth facade flatness of building erupted in upper part by rarely located narrow window openings, through which illuminated internal space of the hall, with single entry on the lateral saide of facade. Symmetrically built balanced composition of stepped form of facades cutted by different sized light apertures - in center paired and of significant size illuminating main section and small - in two circles – for lateral sections. Well-proportioned refined rotunda on thin columns, crowned by pyramid hipped roofs, located on hipped roofs of temple, what alives severe and expressive capacity of culted building. Revetment of walls inside of temple carried out from large roughly cutted stones, laid into laying with wide opened joints. This is explained by the fact that in the past walls of temple carried plaster cover, on the surface of which were carried tematical by subjects polychromatic paintings. This is testified by particularly saved on the north wall fragments with fresco paintings. Supporting pylon-columns and archvolts of arches over them reveted by well cutted large stony blocks. In upper parts of hall’s interior was used decorative carving on the stone. Monastery on r. Agoglan is the main construction of existing in the past of monasteries complex with different purposes by habited and economic structures, grouping in yard’s territory. Borders of monastery were taken in stony strong walls with existing arched aperture-entry. Presently from these numerous constructions remained only ruins. Monastery near r. Agoglap related to IXc. About Agoglan monastery there are works of M.Useynov, L. Bretanistskiy, A. Salamzade and K. Mamedzade. Complex of Khotavank monastery. One of the most ancient monasteries complexes is Khotavank monastery, located on the left coast of the river Terter in Kelbajar region. Complex includes: basilica, temple and chapel. Basilica is a long hall without internal collumns. Eastern part was completed by half rounded apsida. Window openings of the temple has a form of horse shoe (pic. 4, 5). On both sides of altar apsida located rounded in the plan vestries. Succeeded to find out, that they were built significantly later, than temple itself. Entry to these vestries leads from altar apsid, which is met rarely. During the research of the left vestry on its ceiling was discovered writing of one of the abbots of Khotavank monastery, lived in XIII c. Monasteries complex badly saved, only in relative safety we could see cathedral, built by albanian ruler Oganes Khachenskiy. This interesting creature of architectures of Caucasian Albania is very distinguished from culted architectural works of neighbored nations. Cathedral done asymmetrically in plan and in capacity-space construction. In consequent centuries near basilica temple, was raised a range of right-angled in plan churches and chapels, owing to which raised great culted complex, which became a residence of albanian bishop and one of the most important culted-instructive centers. From X up to XV c. Khotavank becomes Christian ecclesiastic centre of albanian Khachen princedom. In period of governing albanian ruler Vakhtank, son of Asan Jalal in Khotavank, monastery complex is widening. Here was activated coaching inn, library and church, constructed in 1214 by Vakhtank’s wife Arzu-Khatun. Church was constructed for the memory of her husband and two sons. Good saved church is one of valuable monuments of architecture of early middleaged Albania. Church is not large, has two bas-reliefs: on eastern side over the window painted up to the waist prince and one saint - both of them keeping the temple’s model, and on southern wall - two princes keeping the temple’s model as well. In first case we should see in the picture husband of Arzu-Khatun with saint, and in the second - her two sons. Discovered ceramic goods during excavations of south-eastern temple’s foundation allows to date it to VI-VII c. But further several times there were carried out renovation and repair works. About Khotavank complex there are works of R. Geyushev, K. Mamedzade, D. Akhundov Complex of Amarass monastery. Complex of Amarass monastery is located in settlement of Soye Khodjavend region. It consists from church - basilica, underground part, inhabited and economic constructions and stony serfed fence. (pic. 6, 7). Church in plan is right-angled. Internal space of church is divided by four pylons, located by two in a range, on three sections, and central - is more wide. Central section from eastern part ends with raised over the ceiling by altar apsyda, crowned half cupola. This is more higher section blocked by lancet arch. Lateral sections, with adjacent to them small premises, have usual cylindrical arches. Facades of church reveted with well worked stony blocks. Roof of the building - is gable, and western butt-end crowned with small six collumns belfry with tent pyramid cover. Doorway is fixed in the western wall. In 1970 during archeological research under altar apsyda of the church was dicovered underground premises (2x4m)*. It is blocked with arch and level of the ceiling is located at the depth of 5, 2 m from mark of church’s ceiling. Slope to underground part of the church is laid by stony stairs, located from both sides: on eastern part of the premises there is a doorway. Sources inform about the period of this temple’s construction - IVc. Territory of the church’s complex is surrounded from four sides by serfed fence, which in plan has right-angled form and strenghtened by angled towers. On the south wall of the fortress located aperture with half compasses arch. Internal yard of fortress is divided into two parts. First is - house - hold yard, where located service premises and stable. Second part - is church yard, where located a church and inhabited houses. All inhabited and house-hold constructions are adjacent to serf wall. Their roofs give an opportunity to walk easily by the whole parameter of the walls, watching surroundings and in case of necessity to fight with a help gun-slots, located on all walls and angled towers. To the roof lead opened stony stairs, located near with angled towers. Archivolts of inhabited and house-hold constructions are laid from well cutted stones. External and internal walls are done from chopped stones. Date of complex’s construction is related to IX c. Later there were carried out renovation works and present condition of the monument is dated XIII c. Characteristics of Amarass complex found a reflection in works of R. Geyushev, K. Mamedzade, D. Akhundov. Complex of St. Elysee’s temple. Complex of St. Elysee’s temple is located in settlement Magavuz of Agtseren region - on the left coast of river Egyshe at the height of 2000 m over the level of the sea. By a legend, the temple was constructed in IV c in honor of first preacher of Christianity in Albanina Elysee. Presently existed complex dated to XIV c. (pic 8). However archeological excavations, carried out in 1970 near eastern wall of the main temple, discovered many ancient constructive remains and domestic subjects. Complex is surrounded from all sides by serf fence. Fortress has western and eastern gates. Main entry is western gates - from point of view of defence attracts a very special attention. On the territory of fortress located eighteen objects of differrent purposes. This main temple, chapels, two floors inhabited house, house-hold premises and stables. Main temple consists from two premises. First - is a hall, which has in plan square form. Internal space is divided by 2 columns and shelves near the walls for three simalteneous sections, and central is higher. Sections blocked by cylindrical arch. Second premises - prayer hall - has right-angled form. Overhead cover is arched. Facades of temple reveted by cutted stones. On the roof of first premises is located a bell-tower. Second relatively small building - church - located on the right side of the main temple. In plan it has a right-angled form, internal space of which consists from right-angled in plan hall and adjacent to it from eastern part two apsyds. From the left and right side of the temple located six chapels. Inhabited house and one of house-holds premises located in south-eastern corner, another in the centre, and stables in north-eastern corner of the fortress. Connection with right coast territory could be established only with the help of one bay stony bridge via river Egyshe, ruins of which located at the distance of one killometer from fortress. Date of construcitve complex is related to XIVc. About the complex of St. Elysee there is data in works of R. Geyushev, K. Mamedzade. Complex of Gandzasar monastery. One of interesting culted constructions of XIII c is Gandzasar monastery, located in settlement Vanklu of Agderen region (pic. 9-11). Complex of Gandzasar monastery consists of main construction - temple, bell tower and fixed to it from western side a range of additional constructions, which are adjacent to serf walls from north side. In initial sources construction of Gandzasar complex is connected with the name of Khachen prince Asan Jalal. Construction of the monument started in 1216 and first constructions were completed in 1238. However it should be supposed that Asan Jalal had not constructed, but just reconstructed already existed albanian temple, possibly, of heathen period. Temple was illuminated in 1240. Vestibule was constructed by wife of Asan Jalal Mamkan-Khatun. Temple’s architecture is cross-cupola composition, sources of which go back to VIII-IX c. It is necessary to note, that such planned composition is not met in culted buildings of eastern countries in IX c. In building’s corners are located 2 elongated premises, connected by half rounded apsyda. In lower corners of the building in 2 floors are located choirs. Inside of the building by vertical rods stressed corners fo undercupola space, which frame central part of the temple. Arches of cross’s branches (from the side of undercupola space) have lancet contour. Each spherical sail mounted by two carved plates with reserved not repeated ornaments (star, circle, square). In upper part of each spherical sail, on the plane, framed rod, painted high reliefs, heads of saint animals - bull, sheep. Temple inside is round and brough up of eight pairs of thin semi-columns - plaits, passing to hanging arches. External facades of Gandzasar temple transmit its internal cross-cupola composition. Building was put at five - stepped socle, which gives to it not only additional steady, but also compositional expression. In architectural composition of Gandzasar temple’s facades very well used plane arches, formed by relief of double half rollers. Planes of walls of temple’s north and south facades decorated by plastic relief identical by sizes of five arches. Over middle arch there is strictly profiled big cross. Undercupola drum of temple - 16 grains and each grain ends with small pediment-tongs. Accordingly to such completion of drum pyramidal cover of cupola got original folded-umbellate form. High drum and its completing tent rise above the whole building. Decoration of drum has a definite sense content, which gives to it sculptural pictures. Architecture of arch, leaned to complex system of layer stalactites, is a compositional kernel of vestibule. It should be noticed the completion of composition and perfection of architectural forms. Numerous elements of diophysit character testify the fact that temple is not Armenian but Albanian. About Gandzasar monastery there are works of R. Gsushev, A. Yakobson, K. Mamedzade, A. Akhadov. Such is a brief architectural characteristics of five monuments of Caucasian Albanian, located on the territory of Karabagh district of Azerbaijan. It is known that Armenian scientists try to prove by different ways that Caucasian Albania and its whole architecture is related to historical Armenia. Their claims for Albanian lands are deprived of any scientific foundation. Architectural - planning and constructive modes of monuments of Caucasian Albania differ from architectural monuments of Armenia. Distinctive feature of Albanian culted constructions, and especially monasteries and temples, is internal space - in type of four arched composition, which brings to cruciform in plan form. It is necessary to note that cross-cupola composition of temples first used in architecture of Azerbaijan. Sources of this composition go back to VIIIc. We also note that cross-cupola composition gets its further development not only in culted constructions, but also in memorial monuments of Azerbaijan. From other side, typical for Albanian temples planning mode in the way of four- and six columns three sectional basilica is seldom met in architectural monuments of Armenia. Typical way of compositional mode in culted construction, as in Moslem, and so in Albanian Christian architecture is settlement, on main facade sides, of monuments of open galleries. We can give as an example “Juma Mosque” in Shemakha, “Geokhar-Aga and The Lower Mosque” in Shusha, “Ambarass Mosque” in Ordubad, “Zardabi” Mosque, “Shakhsevanlar” and “Tatlar” in Gandja, main temple of Khotavank complex and so on. Albanian architects of Azerbaijan worked out its own constructive and constructional methods, achieved of great perfectness in artistic carving on stone. It is known from considered by us beautiful monuments of Karabagh region of Azerbaijan.
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