CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE CONVENTUAL COMPLEX
GANDZASAR AND ITS PLACE IN THE HISTORY OF CAUCASIAN ALBANIA
HAJIYEVA SABINA, Ph.Dr. of architecture Azerbaijan Architecture and Civil Engineering University 5 A.Sultanova, Baku-370073, Azerbaijan
Gandzasar Cathedral- the most developed sample of stone thread Albanian architecture. Built on saint ancient place this complex was the center of culture of Caucasian Albania. Decoration of cathedral is not only the certificate of high skill of Albanian architects, as well as the demonstration of deep cortex of Albanian symbology because some elements of the decor show the traces of mutual influence with the more ancient before-Christian cults. Azerbaijan is well known as country almost the whole territory of which is an grate original museum. However only small part of its cultural heritage is already explored. It's really difficult to name some region of country which did not save the monuments of the material and artistic culture of the nation. During long time Azerbaijan was known as solely moslem country. However islam has start roots here only in VIII-IX centuries but before it and simultaneously with it in different regions of country consecutively changed each other and were developped in the most close-fitting interaction Mazdaism, Mitraism, zoroastrism and Christianity. Exactly in these periods occurred a shaping and forming of azerbaijanian culture. That is inadmissible to forget these history stages. One of the most important aspects of historical study of country's culture is the cult architecture because it in the greater degrees, than other spheres of the artistic culture connected with tlie public development and therefore in vastly smaller degrees has tlie accidents and influence of different circumstances. This is not only the result of building activity and entailment of the technical culture but first of all it shows the ideal life of society. High bloom of the culture early middleaged Azerbaijan was shown first of all by the most rich monuments of Christian cult. Arised at the beginning of initially era Christianity has start roots in Albania in I century, although was officially accepted as a state religion only in IV century. Christianity was one of the most important stages of history of Azerbaijan, however Christian architecture of Caucasian Albania was not as a whole explored before a last time. The reason of insufficient knowledges of Christian monuments was that one of them were bad saved, some were wrongly rank to the someone else culture, but the others were completely destroyed at a period of the antireligious policy of Soviet Union. It's necessary to say that on the territory of historical Albania there is no completely saved monument. Not deflect from the general Christian canons albanian temples were original, because showed the line of more ancient local traditions. So longing to rank the monuments of obviously azerbaijanian architecture to the culture of nearby folk have not the basis. And it's impossible to be agry with A.L.Jakobson, noted: "...folk of Azerbaijan has a lot of monuments to be proud of. Sufficiently to name the mausoleums of Nakhichevan, monuments of Baylakan and giving decorative art from XII-XII1 centuries..." (1,p.l05) As was pointed out by Baranovskiy "Albania lieved by the intensive cultural life before coming of Arabians, has created it own architectral value" (2,p.33). In VI-VII centuries albanian church was so enough strong, "that priests controlled deals of tlie church, but laities and warriors had not the rights on the church" (3,p. 157). Church was the most large owner of the lands. This situation brought about the ubiquitous construction of temples and priories. In the Albanian chronicle had written that III-rd Vacliagan has build so much churches how much days are per annum. Construction of tlie churches and priories in Albania already at first years of taking a Christianity (after the registration of Catholicos - the head of the church) was winnowed not in disorder but has complied with Aguen canons. (4, p.69-70). New bloom of Christianity was connected with rising of Khachen albanian principality, which already from the end of XII century played the most important role in the history of Albania. In written sourcesthat area was named on- different: Artsakh, Small Syunik, Khachen, Karabah. The lider dynasty was Jalalids (Jalal's family). Dynasty representatives carried the titles: prince of "Syunik and Albania)), "tsar of Albania)), "person who keep Albania)) and etc. Jalalids had political and mundane power in Khachen up to XV century, where upon became spiritual leaders. The power of Artsakh was significant in political and church value. Clergy with mundane took the part in all albanian church cathedrals. So, how had written albanian writer Kirakos from Gandza, mighty prince Hasan Jalal Davia "prudent, desent husband and pious, modest and merciful)), honoured priests and set much dug for the role of Church in economic, political and spiritual attitude. At a period of his rule increased the power of Albanian Church that had several losted after coming of Arabians to Azerbaijan. Church had its own Catholicos in this period, alphabet, getting rich literature, albanian history. Exactly during leading of Hasan Jalal was built the majestic Gandzasar conventual complex. Built on saint ancient place this complex was the center of culture of Caucasian Albania. Aside from the most buildings of the temple, complex included also vault of manuscripts, school and other buildings. Gandzasar was also the place of generic vault, the revenge of burying of Jalalids princes and other important persons of Khachen. That information came from from the epigraph of the priory. So, in Gandzasar inscription of Hasan Jalal from 1240, one can read: "My father before his death bequeathed me and my mother Horishakh to build a church in Gandzasar- the place of our fathers..." (5, p. 150). But on the grave plate of Hasan Jalal that also is on the territory of priory there is save inscription which states: "Grand prince Hasan Jalal has cared out the testament of his parent, has build this splendid stone cliurch at 1216 and decorated it by all the manner of drawings has finished it together with his mather Mamkan in 1238" (5,p. 159). The exceeding importance of Gandzasar priory shows the rite of sanctifying of the Gandzasar priory in 1240, when Hasan Jalal generously presented the farmlands and gardens, varied saint silver utensil to the monastery. Except this he presented freedom to the priory. On this ceremonies was present Catholicos of Armenia (as a guest, not as the owner), many scientists, 700 priests. After sanctifying Hasan Jalal gave the dinner, during which helped to guests and generously presented all of them (5, p. 150). Gandzasar Cathedral- the most developed sample of stone thread in Albanian Architecture. In spite of stubborn and groundless longing to rank Gandzasar to the armenian culture, attribute its obvious. Proportions of temple, correlation its main parts, symbology of carved details and constructive elements, prefeasible semantic sounding indicate its albanian accesories. The most fine open-work and small like rugs thread, plastical relief developped by arched dividing the facades, sculptural groups formed the nonrepeat appearance of the. temple. Decoration of the cathedral -not only certificate of high skill of the architects, as well as demonstration of deep cortex of albanian symbology, because some elements of decor carry traces of mutual influences with more ancient before- Christian cults. Besides, obvious the relationship with existed side by side with the Christianity moslem architect. So, half-locked by later builded pretend west facade has the appearanse of Christ, birds on its head and two figures beside his legs. Figure of Christ with mongolian pigtails by the person obviously shows influence of mongolian architecture at a period of their leading in Khachen principality. It's interesting to study the explanation of binding of Christian and moslem motives in Gandzasar and other Christian monuments of Middle Ages from standpoints of revealing a symbology of khachdashes - cross-shaped stones, Christian memorial architecture, where crosses, arched dividing, turn wall-plugs and sculptural groups that formed the grandeur of Gandzasar, occupied the leading place. Building of Christian priories lasted before 1836, when albanian Church was in an abolish and was subordinate to armenian Church. In this period has began the transmigration of armenian families to Azerbaijanian lands (6, p.44) after the conclusion of Turkmenchay's agreement at 1828, but special notice of Saint Synod has attach the cathedral of Albania- Gandzasar- to armenian Church. Thereby was selled precaution of Griboyedov, is either as many the others, "about that armenians will posess for ever the lands, where the real owners let them to live first time" (7,p.54). As a result of that azerbaijanian people has lost the great part of monuments of architecture, which wrongly steels to rank to the someone else culture. However process of their creation, plan and decorative particularities, cognate with the creation of moslem architecture of Azerbaijanians, shows their accesories exactly to the Albanian culture.
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