"Tahsil" Society of the AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC "BILGI"
¦ 1, Baku - 2000
ON THE PROBLEM OF AUTOHTONITY OF THE TURKIC POPULATION OF GARABAG
(or regarding falsification of the ethnic belongings of the Albanian population of the Caucasus by the Armenian scholars)
ALEKPER ALEKPEROV, doctor of philosophy Azerbaijan University
Some historians, especially Armenian ones, consider that Turkic people settled the Eastern Europe and Caucasus, including Azerbaijan not earlier the Christmas. Such statement of the question has given a ground for Armenian separatists as well as representatives of the "Sadval" nationalist movement to put forward to Azerbaijan some territorial claims.
On the basis of the comparative analysis of written sources and onomastic material, the author disproves the idea on settlement of Albania by the Turkic people.
Azerbaijan and Garabag as its integral parts are one of the ancient places of civi-lization. Concerning the territory of the present Armenia it is also the Azerbaijan land. By its geographical location the territory of Azerbaijan including that of the southern Azer-baijan is situated between the Asia and Europe. The roads of many peoples in the ancient and medieval times passed through this territory.
One of the complicated and contradictory questions of the history of Azerbaijan is the problem of the ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijan people. This problem is urgent since the Armenian scholars try to prove that they are the autohtonic people of the Caucasus and the Turkic majority was settled this area during the Hun invasion of the Caucasus. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze all complicated ethnic problems of the ancient times, which had some relations to Azerbaijan.
The polemics of the Azerbaijan scholars with their Armenian colleagues on this theme had very various literatures. We can not consider all literature on this problem in the given article. However in this article we did not aim to discuss some problems with the Armenian scholars. We tried to give the objective estimation of those complex ethnic problems which happened in those far times. We could enter into the polemics with the scholars of that level whose investigations are far from ambiguous and ideological ideas. Therefore, we do not want to be incorrect like some Armenian scholars.
In the introduction into L. N. Gumilyov's "The Ancient Rus and the Great steppe" D. S. Likhachev wrote that the historical reality in the ancient time was richer than it is represented at the sources. . It is known that the most part of the chronicles of the ancient and medieval history was written non-objective because of the influence of some rulers. Therefore, in order to study the ethnic processes of that time the onomastic material has very great significance alongside the written sources. Because of the influ-ences of the ideology, which is far from the reality, historical sciences accept the idea about settlement of the Turkic people to the Caucasus and Minor Asia only after the Hun invasion. We should show the ethnic map of the North coast of the Black Sea and the North Caucasus on the eve of this invasion. According to the historical chronicles, at the very beginning of our era the given area was inhabited by the Veneds . To consider the Veneds as the Slav peoples is a false opinion because the notions "Sklavin" and "Slav" are different ones. (We will discuss this issue later).
On the eve of the Hun invasion the ethnic map the North coast of the Black Sea was changed because of the settlement of the Got tribes from the Baltic area. The Got tribes settled the space on the low Dunay and Dnepr in the direction to the Black Sea. The movement of the different tribes in the Europe was activated in the second part of the IV century when between the Volga and Don rivers some tribal union came into existence called as the Hun. After defeated the Alan, the Hun included them into its union. The Hun union in 375 defeated the Got union of the North coast of the Black Sea. After this event the part of the Got (ost-Got) was included into the Hun union, the another part (the west got) moved to the West . Analysis of the sources shows that when the Byzantine and Latin authors mentioned the Hun, they mean the Turkic people  which as its integral part had Bulgars . After occupation of Pannoniya in 420 the Hun people created here the vast union which unified the other people and disappeared in 454 . L. N. Gumilyov noted that after the collapse of the Magna Bulgaria in 670 the Turkic-Bulgarian people run "some to the Kama river, some to the Dunay, some to the Hungary, and some to It-aly" . However, our analysis of the sources and the onomastics certifies that the fixa-tion the Turkic ethnoses in the Europe derives from more ancient times.
The Byzantium, Latin, Armenian, and Arabic sources telling about the Turkic-Bulgar mention their under the different notions (onogur, kutrigur-kutigur, (k)utigur, barsel, ogur, v. n. n. dr/ e. t. c. . But except the noted names there are in relation of Turkic- Bulgar are applied the notion "sklaboi/sklavin/as-sakaliba" .
The sources tell that in 633-668 to the time of rule of the king ofGrimuld one of the Bulgarian lords named Alceko or Alchik arrived to Italy and settled in the province of Benevet and the other part of Bulgars- Kutigurs (Gurt-Oguz or Wolf Oguz) 30 year be-fore found some hostage in Bavaria in the area ofDogoberd king . It is possible using these facts the Muslim historian Al- Khorezmi wrote "the land of Germany- and it is land of as- Sakaliba (Bilad Irmaniya va hiya ard as-sakaliba)" . I am sure that the Turkic -Bulgars kept their names in the name of the famous "Sen-Gotard" , where the tribal name kutrigur/kotrag. Our onomastic conclusions correspond to the written sources.
The penetration of the Bulgars took place in the Velizariy troops in the Africa . Especially in the large amount of the toponimics having the Bulgar names are traced in France and in the Perinea peninsula.
As we noted early one of the famous Bulgar generation was Barsel . J. Mar-quart tried to link the name of Barsel with the name of "bersitkon" with the fish genus caught in the Meotid District. He considered that Barsel received their names after this fish was caught . Z. V. Togan considers that the name of Barsel is derived from the Turkic tribe of Bars. But P. Golden using both versions considers there is not any true etymology of the given ethnonims .
During the study of the history of some ethnos it is not enough to compare only some of manuscripts. Essential role in the investigation of the history of the definite peo-ple belongs also to the study of its world outlook and traditions. Therefore, it is to pay attention on the genealogical legend on the origin of the Turkic peoples. According to this tradition some Turkic peoples is descended from female wolf (gurd); other expla-nations of this legend belonging to other Turkic peoples are descended from female- lion. . According to Mahmud Kashgari, the author of the dictionary of the Turkish dialects, Lion is "bars". .
The Muslim historian Ibn Khordadbekh mentions about the tribes of Burjan, as-Sakaliba, Abar settled on the North from Andalus . "Burjan, Bulgar, b. r. g. r, b. 1. Kan" are the different types of the ethnonims of the Bulgar in the Arabic sources. The name of the Barsel is kept in the name of Barcelona city, which is on the North from An-dalus and also in the name of the (Marsel/Barsel- author) which is on the South of France. It is possible that the name of this tribe by the wordy translation was the base for the foundation of such toponims as Lion/ Leon denoting the lion's land. To same category we may relate the name of the district "IIe- de- France" - Paris. In the expression "IIe- de-France" the component "IIe" is synonyms to the concept of "iya" in the late of Frantsiya denoting the "placement". It derives to the Turkish word of "el"- "country". It is possible that the name of Burgundiya derives from the Turkish "boru (wolf)+ Gunn (the tribe's name) + d/t (the tribal ending of the plurality. For example: Saka-t, Bashkir-d). The early medieval sources tell in the Caucasus the bulgar- Burgundur.
Therefore, we consider that if the Arabic sources and the local names tell about penetration of the Turkic- Bulgar before "Andalus" then we can find some objective bases to assert that they came from the South, As we said that Ibn Khordadbekh in the North from Andalus deployed Saklabs. Some Muslim sources let to assert that as-Sakaliba ethnonims can be understood as Bulgar- Turks but not Slavs. It is interesting that by this name is linked to also Sakasene (Shakashena), where the Caucasian Albania was established. For example the anonymous Persian source Hudud al-ATam telling about Saklabs of the North of the Black Sea notes that they had 2 cities "Vabnit, the first city in the East from as-Sakaliba. . . Khurdab, the big city their king was sitting. . Until recently there were given different etymologies of the Khurdab all weakness of these etymologies are that all investigators understood Saklabs as Slavs. . But our analysis of the Khurdab tells that in the 1 -st part of this word the Turkish Gurd is prayed by the Turkic people as totem . We consider that in the 2-nd part of the Khurdab is expressed "oba"- living area which is kept in the Turkic languages in the forms "iy. ey. oy. uy. lay. yuy. ev. oba;" . In particular according to L. A. Gindin the component of "uwa" (in this case "oba/uba"- author) as the prefixes "-wa, -oa, va, -uo" is widely spread in the territory of the Minor Aasia and Greece in the ancient times , For example, the Urarty manuscript is called the country Manna (State in the territory of Azerbaijan in the IX b. c.) - as mannaani-ebani" , where ebani is the land" . (Compare Gurd/ gird (wolf) + ab (av/ev) + ani" -Girdman/ Gardabani- is the integral part of the Caucasian Al-bania later Mehranidian property). Neverthels, comparison of the stories Ibn Khordadbeh and Hudud al-A'lem permits us to pay attention the next toponium of Andalus - Kordova. That's it in Arabian sources this toponium fixes as "Kurtuba". However, the mentioned comparisons let as to pay attention wordy tran part of which is present Spanish city "Bar-celona" - capital of a province Cathalonia. For the time title Cathalonia has appeared in the official documents of first half of XII century. The history of Cathalonia ascends to times of Roman government in Spain. About 470 Cathalonia was occupied by Gothians and Alanians and became a part of Westgothian monarchy. After a conquest of this terri-tory by the Arabs, Cathalonians were moved to the Pyrenus peninsula where the group had recognized its leader Odger Cathalone. It is considered that the name the province is derived from this name. There is another point of view that the word "Cataluna" was de-rived from the word "Gothalana" which was occupied by Gothians and Alanias . However, taking into consideration unstably position of sound "r" in the Turkic lan-guages (for example, in the next Turkic words such as- torpak/toprak, arslan/aslan, kur-tigur/kurtigur, Volga/Bolga+ r , we are connecting an origin of ethnonim with the form ?Got?/r/ +el, which was interested to us i. e. "The wolf country". It is possible to notice, that the ethnonim "Got" also specifies the connection with Turkish field of spreading and we consider, that this word is derived from the Turkic "kut / soul, light, fire", i. e. our conclusions first of all are confirmed with the fact that the Gotha in the Byzantian sources are nothing but "Skifians". However, the noted term means as Bulgars - Oguz . On the other hand our conclusion on connection of ethnonims "Got" with Turkish "fire / light" is substantiated also with other title, the German "aleman", where "al / light /compare, Germikhioni - red Huns [3la]/, and "german", as a synonym of a word "aleman". Taking into consideration above noted we can not agree with the opinion of those historians considering that Turkic peoples appeared in Europe and Minor Asia, only after Hun's invasion. For example, though a number of the historians uncondition-ally insist on the Iranolinguality of the ancestors of Skifians, nevertheless there are im-portant facts about presence among the Skifians of the great number of Turkic plasts . Except it our researches of the Latin, Byzantine and Arabian sources have shown, that the name of Bulgar - Oguz (Ogur) as "sklaboi- sklavin- as- sakaliba" is derived from many number of ethnonim "sak", "sakala-r" . So it is possible to speak, that toponims with a title "gurt / gord" were widely widespread (widely) in Europe.
In the XIII b. c. in the northeast of Minor Asia the state ofFrigia was established. By the opinion of the experts, probably Frigians have moved in the Minor Asia from Ma-cedonia or Frakia. In the X- VIII centuries B. C. - period of the best power of this state the frigion capital "Gordiy" or "Gordon" called in honor of king Gordiy, glorified at this time. The non-Greek character of this toponim is proved early . Our researches of a title of the Frigian capital, situated in south - west of Black Sea show that this title is similar to title of Saklab's capital- "Khurdab" - in the description of "Hudud al- Alem" situated by the source on the north of Black Sea, i. e "Gord (Wolf)+ iy (domestic region). That is designates a place, the settlement is provided by another Greek name of city-"Gordion" where Greek "on" - denotes a place, settlement. It is interesting also that some historians try to consider the Armenians with Frigians. I think, that the comparison of the historical people "Arm" with Hays is not absolutely right and (in order to prevent any misunderstanding) in relation to the contemporary Armenians we should use a term "hay". In Turkic languages names of the rivers are fixed as "sel, cay, say, su ,i. e. Aksu, Yenisay Keksay, Jansay etc. . Ptolemei fixed on territory of the Caucasian Albania the river "Kaysiy", which is identified with Gek chay or Girdemanchay. The Roman his-torian-geografian of 1-st century Pliniy Higher mentions, that "Skifians named the river Tanais- Silis", or "the river oflaksart had named by Skifians Silis" [36a]. These two mes-sages of Pliniy allow to judge that already in times of Alexander Makedonsky Tanais and Yaksart had the identifications in language of Skifians which was origins from the Turkic "sel / the river". In "Illiada" of Homer describes such scene of period of the war of the Greeks with Troyans: "Pirkhem head . . .the Peonians, who lived far in the Amedonian country where the river of wide Aksiy is rolling. "  Historians mark, that "Aksiy" is a river in Makedonia . We consider that in this case we do not need in comments. It would be desirable to pay attention to historians and to such an insignificant detail. Among Turks of the Minor Asia the musical structure of tones (lad) of the Shour is widespread. Garabag among people is considered "as a conservatory of Azerbaijan". Uzeir Hajibeyli, the founder of the Azerbaijan classical music was bom in Garabag. Az-erbaijanians consider the lad of "Shour" to be one of the seven main musical lads. So here sound structure of "Shour" by its order coincides with the sound structure of Frigian lad. Therefore, these facts reject the Frigian origin of Hays. [38 a]
The legend about premather of Wolf-mother or Lion-mother has kept the deep traces in the mentality of Turkic people. Using this name Turkic people named the coun-try, cities, tribes, children. For example, Gurd / wolf: Country- Girdman / Gardabani (province of Caucasian Albania), Katalonia; City - Gordiy, Khurdab, Kordova / in arabian sourses Kurtuba - Kurt (wolf) + oba (area) Tribe - Kutigur / Kurtogur, (k) utigur. Personal names - Gord - king of Frigians;Gord / Groda - leader of Hunns ac-cording to the "Chronograph" by Feofan; Kort / Gurt - a name of Kubratkhan, father of Asparukh- chan, that was fixed in the "Imennik (the title of the Bulgarians khans)- the list of ancient Bulgarian kings . In the Italian version Atilla is represented with the wolf head . Bars / lion: Country - Barsel / Barsiliya (province ofCaucasion Albania) . City - Barselona /Marsel,Paris, Barda (historical capital of Caucasian Albania-Partav / Barzaa / Bardaa: alternation p/b" and "s/z/d/t/"- a part/s+ av i. e Bars + oba): populated area ofBorcali (the part of historical Caucasian Albania) . Tribe - barsel / barsil. Personal names - Bars-as - Saklabi (not Boris Slav, as A. P. Novoseltsev be-lieves )- a member of embassy of Bulgarian king Almish / Almush to a court yard of Bagdad Khalif: Bars (Boris) - Bulgar khan (death 907), accepting a Christianity from the Mizianian Bulgars; Barsbek - Khazar kagan; one ofAtilla's uncles was called Aybars , The wide spread of titles of districts connected to the word of "lion / bars" (the dialect form for the transition of b/p/ - bars / pars) allows to introduce new approach to the etymology of titles Parsua / Parfiya [46,47]. Assumed by I. M. Dyakonov and devel-oped by A, A. Grantovsky the idea that "Parsu" ascend to ancient Iranian "parsuva / -side, edge", (avest. "prsu / parasu" side), was subjected to cruticism by R. Frau. He said "Parsa was ethnic name . By the opinion of R. Fray, this people was speaking the Persian language , where as under the opinion of I. M, Dyakonov in IX- in the second half of VIII c. ofB. C. native population of Parsua was not Iranian languages . Presumably first Indoiranians have appeared in the Near East in first half of II thousand years ofB. C. . The last researches ofJ. B. Jusifov show, that tribes of III thousand years ofB. C. known under the name "su, turukki, lullubei". They had different names in country Aratta that was situated near Lake Urmia, and belonged to Turkic ethnic language group .
It is necessary to mark, that in Indo-E uropean language there
is not a general ti-tle for tiger / lion . G. M. Gamkrelidze and V. V.
Ivanov mark, that in Indo-European language the term "bars" in a sense
"bars", (het. Parsana, - where is selected the suffix "ana"
and basis "pars"). The historians mark, that to the Iranian forms on
"-s" (Iranian -pers / pars/ is new - Persian "Pars") are
opposite to the doubled forms on "-d":Sogdian "Pmk",
Afganian - "Prang", Persian "Palang" (bars) with addition
By excluding any borrowings of these forms from one language into another, the mentioned scholars consider that this word was borrowed from some Minor Asian lan-guage. They call the name of "Bars" in the ancient Indo-European dialects (for Example, the Greek "Leo", the German "Lewe") . Taking into account the presence in the Urmian area the Turkic element from an-cient time, we consider "Parsua/Parfiya/Partav"- are dialectical forms of the same name, which is concerned with the Turkic words "Bars-oba", i. e. the "Land of Lions". We need to clarify the toponiums of Shirvan, the area on the west of the Caspian Sea and in the East of the Kura river, which is a part of the Caucasian Albania or the early medieval Ar-ran. The toponium is met in the different districts of the East . Sara Ashurbeyli sup-ports Minorsky's opinion connecting the Shirvan name with the "Shir/shar" tribe. M Seyyidov also supports this opinion. . However, taking into consideration the analogy with the "Bars" name, we consider that the etymology of Shirvan as a "land of lions", i. e. "Shirvan" is an Iranian equivalent of the Turkic "Barsel". Notice that "Barsel/Berziliya" in the Medieval sources is situated in the North of Shirvan ; Shirvan is situated on the Eastern coast of the Kura river; "Parisos" - as a part of the Caucasian Albania is situated on the Right coast of Kura and "Borcali" as a part of the Caucasian Albania is situated on North- West from the pointed area. . In the Medieval sources the toponium of "Var-san" which is noted also as "Varsak/ Varsaz". . This toponium is applied to the city situated on Barseliya and also to the area having the same name situated on the Araz river . Regarding this word Shamsaddin Sami notes: "Varsan is the name of Azerbaijan wholly or its part" . To Ziya Bunyatov these data are taken the Arabian sources. .
It is necessary to notice that "dog" is domesticated "wolf. The symbol of dog takes too honorable place among the Turkic peoples. . Turkic peoples named tribes in honor of dog (It bechene). The Slav Russian chronicles report on broad spreading among Turkic peoples personal names, rising to the dog (Mar, Itoglu, Kobyak, Konchak) . To this categories it is necessary to refer Spaka -woman that was feeding the founder of Achemenid empire Kir and also the name of the Scythian king Ishpakay ("Spaka,/ Ispaka/ Ispakay"). There are many opinions about etymology of this word . We must know and think that dog is domesticated wolf. So, coming from this, we consider, that both in the nature, and in mythologies both animals must save similarity, i. e. if "wolf/ gurt"- a symbol of fire /light /and this is confirmed by presence in the word gurt/ kurtcomponent "ku" - Ku (ar), ku (m)an, the Russian word Polovtsi - "Poloviy" which means from Slav a yellow or colour of straw), the "Dog" must also keep the same manifestation. In Turkic languages for marking "a light", except "Ku-" is used component "is" with the develop-ment in is / ish / us /oz / az /ut /od / (is- ti (warm), uld- uz (star), is-ig (light), az-ar (tem-perature). Saying about "Ispaka" we may notice that in this word first slab "is'it" a light factor. Considering sanctity of Wolf / Dogs we suppose that staying part of word "Is-paka"- "baka" means "God, Holy Ghost". The researches suppose that theorem "god / baga" has Turkic origin . Thereby, coming from general symbologies of dog and wolf, we suppose that the word we are interested in can be denoted on the Turkic lan-guage origin as "burning god". Arabs in default of the consonant "p" transfer of name of city "Ispahan" is connected by means of the Persian "Isbaka (dog) + an (the prefix of the area" to Turkic concept of "Country of burning Godnes". The Image ofpremother - wolf in this instance "Kanjik" allows to change our opinion on some historic data. First, word "kanjik" refer to both of gods, male and female of wolf. This was connected with their physiological condition . Bringing more archaic form of the given word as "kanic/ kanish" 0. Suleymenov has called attention and on such detail, as follows, on saved in the Latin language a word "canis" in the meaning bitch  that corresponds Turkic "names/ kanjik". On reporting Tit Liviy after falling of Troya outstanding men - Eney and Antenor - was rarefied to move from city. Antenor with the small numbers of "enet" or "venet" arrived to the gulf of the Adreatic Sea. Having exiled from there are landed for the first time is named Troya but the whole people - Venedians. May be the town on the Appenin peninsular - Venecia straightly refer to those veneds. Eney arrived to Makedoniya, after he moved to Lavrentian district of the Appe-nian peninsula.then he went to Sicily. In the thirteenth of generation of Eney senior brother Numitor, which male posterity of its brother. Reya Silviya, daughter of its brother under the honorable prefix has sent in Church, and so makes her it on eternal virgin. Soon, Reya gave birth two children. The king ordered to throw them to the river. But the Tibr was destroyed and those stayed their children on the coast of the river. By Tit Liviy the female volfreageted to the child cry and feed them. The Favstui founded the children. He brought them home and began to educate. (Some people consider that Larencia was called a female wolf. [7 0] According to Liviy this legend connects with Troya. There-fore, definition of ethnic belongings of Venedians will let us define how the Turkic Kan-ish entered to the Latin. Because some Azerbaijan toponiums are connected with Venedi-ans ('Vanad' in Nakhchivan, "Khodjavend,Sirkhavend" in Garabag, "Vanadzor" in daily Armenia (historical Azerbaijan) , Defining the ethnic belongings of the venedians sholars introduced some confusing. According to N. B. Bodansky, narrator I-V books of Tit Liviy, ethnonim "Enets / Venets / Veneds /" known in different areas of Europe. "From North Italian Venedians saved small quantity of short inscriptions. Their language,- how considers Bodanskaya is Italian. But some details can point to some relationships with Baltic languages (Veneds of North Europe is accepted to consider / Slavs . Several earlier Tit Libiy about Veneds / Venets reports also Herodatus. But from its tale we will leam about the ritual ofVened's girls' marriage and on that veneds inhab-ited in to the north from Frakia, on the Adriatic Sea . After Libiy Cornelius Tatsit tells about Veneds. This Roman historian does not know to whom, in particular, refer the Veneds. He writes: "To consider Pevkiyens, Veneds and Fennes to Germans or Sarmatians, / don't know (! - Alekper) . In the comment to the 2-nd torn that the name of Illirian Veneds populated in the times of Tatsit if up and down Visia was confirmed by the neighbor- Slavs . The Venedians are mentioned if the Peftingereian tables, the map was made in the 4-5 centuries. . It is astonished that some scholars ignore notes of the Armenian historian M. Horenatsi. Tell-ing about settlement in the Basean he notes the settlement place of the Vekhendur Bul-garins Vends began to call by their names . Despite on this announcement of Hore-natsi some investigators want the Illirian Vends to be Italians and Vends according to Tatsit and lordand are Slavs. To the Slavs of the Veneds came on the basis that they are together with Sklavians and Ants are derived from the origin. . However, we noted that the Sklavians in the early Medieval sources are not Slavs in the late meaning iofthis ethnonium, and Bulgarians are Oguzians. This opinion corresponds to the Horenatsi where Bulgarians are Vends. Prokopius from Kesariya and lordan are supplementing each other, Prokopiy writes: ". . . S (k)lavians and Ants are not ruled by the same man. They lived in harmony since the ancient time. .... These Barbarian tribes have the same living and laws. They consider that the God -creator of the rain is the creator of the peo-ples. . . The mode of life like those to Massagetians. . . They are pursuing The Hunn moral values. Sometimes even the name by S (k)lavins and Ants were the same. "/ sic ! - Alekperov/ . Comparing the stories about Veneds by Tatsit, lordan, M. Khorenatsiy and the Slavic crinkle "Povest vremennikh let" (PVL), we can notice some similarity: Tatsit: "/Veneds/. . . . inhabit in the forests and mountains to rob. . ." lordan: ". . , /Veneds/. . . are behaving themselves very crude because of our sins." Mosey Khorenatsiy: "Vaharshak convenes wild strangers /Veneds - an author / living on the north plain beside soles of Great Caucasian mountain . . . and orders them to abandon to rob and not to catch people. PVL: "If black Bulgars will come (in the grounds of above-mentioned sources we put an equal sign between Veneds and Bulgars - Alekperov / and will fight in Corsun country, we order a Rus prince not to let them, otherwise they will cause damage to its country". . These comparisons from four different languages and time sources wit-ness that all of these give the same characteristics for Veneds. Name of Veneds is attested in Muslim and Jewish traditions again with reference to Bulgars / V. n. nd. r. (Hudud al-Alam) W. 1. n. dr. (al-Masudi), w. n. ntr. (Jewisch-khazar documents), N. n. d. r. (Gardizi) . Resently, Norwegian scholars were interested in resemblance of mountainous ex-pressing of the monuments an Mezolitians culture in Azerbaijan - in Gobustan with ex-ponats of the Norwegian Contihi museum. Like the similarity with the "Country of Fire" - Azerbaijan and ancient Vikings? Penetration of Turkic element in the region of Baltic sea and Scandinavia began much early. Written sources and toponimiya of the region witnesses about this. As an ex-ample we can use the name of such cities as "Turku" and "Trakay". Or the Finnish name (country) Finland - "Country of lakes" - "Suomi" that derives from the Turkic words as "su (water) + "ami (b/m-oba / land)" The Icelandic historian Snorru Sturulson (XIII c.), wrote: "Odin and his wife was predicted that will be gone to the north part of the Universe and he will be respected more than another Konungsit. Therefore, he decided to go away and remainede the land of the Turks. . . And they did not stop unless they arrived to North, which is called the land of the Saks. Odin stayed there for a long time. Odin went to the North to the land, which is called now Sweden. The konung of Sweden was called Gulvi. And when he (Gulvi) had heard that these people were coming from Asia, which was called As, he met them and said that Odin may rule as soon as he wish. . . . Odin liked their lands. . . He appointed the rulers there , like that was in Troya. He had appointed twelve rulers to rule and founded such laws, which previously were in Troya and to which Turks were accustomed. The Ass married. . . . they settled on the whole lands of the Saks and from there on the all northern parts of the Earth and the languages of the peoples from Asia were accepted by the peoples of those lands" /! - Alekperov/. . The notice of pub-lishers of the source in the Russian that Turks were connected with Troya because in the XIII century the Seljuks were dominated in the Minor Asia does not correspond to the reality. . First, Sturulson when he told "now" knew his time. Second, the source mentions Troya, which to the XIII century did not exist for a long time. And the last, Sturulson told about pagan of the Turks-Ass who left Troya, but the Seljucs settled the Minor Asia were Muslims and they never annexed Sweden. We need to pay attention to the comparisons of the source of Ass with Turkic. It is necessary to notice that the name of the late Roman provinces "Asia" ascends to the name of the Minor Asian country "Assuva". . The component "iya" in the word "Asia" ascends to the Turkic notion of "settling, country" and this let to judge that com-ponent "uva/oba" in the word "Assuva" is identical to "iya", i. e. the name "Assuva/Asia" is etymologized as "country of Ass". Iranists consider Ass / Alans as Iranian lingual  that looks bias. The idea of Sturulson about the Turkic angularity of the Ass/ Alans is confirmed by the following facts. This is an Old Russian translation of the "history of the Judaic War" by Joseph Flavius: "It is well known that the Ass ... language (or: "people") is descended from the Pechenegs who lived near Tanais and the Azov Sea". . It is well known that Pechenegs are the Turkic people. The origin of the name of Azerbaijan is related to the Ass. The widespread Turkic toponimiya of Europe allows to etymologize the name of country that situated on Appennins and got the name "Italiya" . Legend about mother - "wolf called as Turkic "kanish/canis" allows to conclude that name "Italy" ascend to the Italiyians words "calf (Latin "vitellus/ Vitlu)  does not justify itself. We suppose in the name "Italy" reflected "It (dog/canis) + el (country)" with the secondary ending "iya", corresponding to the word "el/country, "country of mother wolf (compare "Bars+el+iya/countryofelBars.) I think the English word "God" (according to metateza "dog") is the light origin,it has the relation with the same Veneds tribes, which were called as "as-turk" by the Icelandic historian. On the territory of Azerbaijan situated two cities which have the same sounds, the etymology of which is contradictory- "Gandsak/Gazaka/Gjanja". The most widespread is an idea that name "Gan/d/sak" derives from ancient Iranian, or more exactly of Midian "Ganza" - treasury . The toponiums and ethnoniums descending to the above men-tioned words were widespread among the Turkic tribes. . M. Seidov analyzing the word "Gandja" noted, that it was connected with the tribe association of Saks. The re-searcher correctly had noted that name "Gandsak was Turkic origin, but he was wrong when he noted that the word Ganja means "camp of Sak Khans . However, using the above mentioned facts we consider that the word "Gandja" was connected with the notion ofmother-wolf(Ganjik). The modern Gandja is located also on land of history of Cauca-sian Albaniya. There were different opinions about the ethnic origin of the Albanians. . Not considering the opinions of the Hays (Armenians), we should note that the following wrong idea on belongings of Albanians to the Nakh - Dagestan language group gave some bases for the representatives of the Sadval movement to assert that the left coast of the Kura river (the Caucasian Albaniya) is the territory ofLezgistan. . The fact that Albanians are Turkics is confirmed in the complex by the above mentioned facts and first of all by comparing of opinions of the Albanian historian Mosey Kalankaytukskiy with the Greek historian of the V century b. c. Herodotus. We should note that when Kalankaytukskiy tells about the genealogy of the Albanians he mentioned Aran from the Sisaks origin. It is known that "Se/ Sak" - is the denotion of the Skifians in the different languages. There are two versions on the language origin of the Skifians -their Iranian or Turkic lingual. Therefore, the opinion of some scholars on the belongings of the albans to the Caucasian lingual areal is not justified. Taking into consideration of Kalankatuyskiy we can note some interesting analogies. First of all we need to remember that such names as Girdman, Barda, Gandja, Shirvan/ Barsel are etymologized from the Turkic language and corresponds to the Turkic world outlook. Kalankaytukskiy mentioned in his "History of Albanians" about the Trtu river . This river is present "Ter-ter" river is situated in Azerbaijan. Considering that the Albanians as Bulgar- Oguz were the main part of the Skifians we can make some parallel. The city of Volga Bulgarian- "Bulgar" of the medieval authors was situated near the city of "Saksin" . The historic Caucasian Albaniya was a part of the historic Sakasena/ Shakashena . We above pointed that the carriers of the ethnonims of Sklavin/ as- Sakaliba were Bulgarins and not Slavs. But the Arabians historians and geographians called Volga (Bolga-r)  "nahr as- Sakaliba". Describing the Teymurlang's war against Tokhtamish khan Nizameddin Shami wrote: "Emir Teymurlang went to the travel and was ready to the persecution of Tokhtamish. Passing through Itil (Volga), called among the Turkic peoples as Turatur, achieved to the enemy" . Thus, as we may see from the source one of the names of the Volga river Turatur is not only analogical to the Trtu of Ka-lankaytukskiy but as Trtu and Turatur are in the lands of the same people-the Skifians-Bulgar in the following sources. According to the Bible tradition Kalankaytunskiy is linking Albans to the Keturi-ans . Herodotus notes that the grand son of Skif from Arpaksay was Katiar . We can not consider these facts as accidental: The leader/ Basilefs of the Caucasian Albani-ans Zaber (this name is etymologized from the Turkic Chapar - "messenger"), the leader of the Bulgar living near to the Black sea who is mentioned in relation with the 558 events - Zabergan. Al Bakuvi citating of Kazvini notes that one of the Saklab city (Bulgar- Alekperov) - was Shushit , and one of the cities ofGarabag (on the historic territory of the Caucasian Albaniya) is Shusha. All these facts let us to judge that the Al-banians are the Turkic - Bulgarians, the representatives of the Sako - Oguz tribal unity. Concerning the name of Albaniya/Arran there are not the same opinion. By re-suming the above mentioned, I would like to stress the role of volf among Albanians/ Bulgars and how the Turkic people manifested it. According to the Turkic tradition "light" is preceded to the Oguz Khagan which is head by "gurd/ volf. In the Gurd word there is "ku/gu" which is meaning, "light", for example "Kuar" (the Khazarian God of rain), Kuman/Polovtsi (the tribal name). It means we need to take into consideration the ideas of the ancient author Gay Yuliy Solin: "The Albanians. . . are born having white hairs and their white hairs are considered to be the good sign; therefore, the color of the head gave the name for the people" (Alekperov) . On the basis of the above said taking into consideration the synonimic nature of the concepts "ku (t)/ al (p)" as "light", we consider that the name Albaniya derives to the Turkic concept- "a land of fireous (light) men". The name Albaniya is identical to the name of Azerbaijan which does not derive the name ofAtropat (the rulers of Minor Midiya/Atropatena- the IV b. c.) but must be etymologized as a "Land of Fireous Men (Gods)". Finally, comparing the facts ofAl-Khorezmi that Germany is a land of Saklabs (Bulgars) with that Albanians are also the representatives of the Oguz/Bulgars community, we are doing some analogy ALBANIYA (AZERBAIJAN) - (when "b" is transformed into "m") ALMANIYA/GERMANY (103). Resuming the above mentioned we can conclude that the Turkic people are autohtonics not only of Caucasus but also of other places of the Asia and Europe. There-fore, the assortments of the Armenian (Hay) scholars regarding of the ethic origin of the Albanians do not correspond to the reality. It is wellknown that the history is repeated. It is possible that the modern Arme-nian ideologists do not make a conclusion from the history. The war, which was begun by Armenians against Azerbaijanis, caused very destructive consequences to both peoples. However, the Armenians were defeated more. They lost their rich economic status, which they had in Baku. Taking into consideration that historically the Turkic people did the growth of the Hay/Armenians, we can say that they say the essential cause for the popu-lation growth. And this is very lose for them. The historic past of the Hay/Armenian peo-ple say that they can not live in one given territory. Probably it is the base of their psy-chological character, because they can not live together with another people and the des-tiny is leading them all over the world. I consider, that "Garabag" is the last political ad-venture of the Hay/Armenians.
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M., 1957, p. 160; Ibn Ruste. Kitab al-a'lak an-nafisa. BGA, Leyden. 1968, p. 141; Hudud al-A'lam /The region of the world/ tr. and corn. by V. Minorski. London, 1937, p. 162-163; Z. V. Togan. Ibn Fadlan's Reiseberiht Leipzig, 1939, pp. 147-148; P. Golden. Khazar's studies Budapest, v. 1, pp. 144-147; G. Feher. Bulges turkleri tarihi Ankara, 1984, pp. 19-34; N. A. Baskakov. 0 Prois-chojdenii etnonima bashgird//Etnicheskaya onomastika. M., 1984, 13-14 9. A. F. Alekperov. Svyazi Azerbaydjana s Severom nakanune vtorjeniya Seldjukov (vtoraya polovina IX v.- 60-ie gg. XI v.) AKD, Baku, 1992, s. 13-15 10. Paisiy Khilendarskiy. Istoriya slovenobolgarskaya. Prepis, 1772; Sofiya, 1961, p. 59; I. S. Chichurov. Ibid, pp. 61-62, 162; G. Feher. Ibid, p. 34; P. Mutafchiyev. Istoriya na bigar-skaya naroda (681- 1323). Sofiya, 1986, p. 103 11. T. M. Kalinina. Svedeniya rannikh uchennich arabskogo khalifata M., 1988, pp. 29,48 12. P. Golden. 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Ankara, 1945, p. 344; Mahmud al-Kaszari. Compedium the turk dialekts ed. and tr. by R. Dankoff, J. Kelly. Harvard, 1981, v. 1, 271 20. Ibn Chordadbech. Kitab al-vasalik va-1-mamalik BGA, pp. 192-193 21. Hudnd., .,p. 158 22. A. P. Novoseltsev. Vostochniye istochniki o slavyanakh i Rusi VI-IX w. Drev-nersskoye gosudarstvo i yego mejdunarodnoye znacheniye. M., 1965, p. 39 23. A. F. Alekperov. K interpretasii odnogo rasskaza v soobshenii persidskogo anonima Hudud al-Alem. Izvestiya. AN Az. SSR ,ser. 1st. ,Fil., Pravo, 1991, pp. 67-69 24. DLT, p. 73; Azerbaijcan dilinin izahli lugati. Baki,1983, p. 431; Russko-altayskiy slovar. 1964, p. 142; Russko-bashkirskiy slovar. M., 1964, p. 180; Russko-uzbekskiy slovar, M., 1954, p. 194; Russko-turezkiy slovar. M., 1972, p. 195; Russko-kazakhsiy slovar. M., 1954, p. 167 25. L. A. Gindin. Yaziki drevneyshego naseleniya vuga Balkanskogo poluostrova. M., 1967, pp. 104-105,113,114 26. I. M. Dyakonov. Istoriya Midh M., 1956, p. 174 27. F. Calilov. 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Istoriko-filosofskiy jumal, Yerevan, 1987, .No 7, pp. 166- 168 60. Jakubi. Historiaye ed. M. T. Haustma, par. I, Leyden, 1883, pp. 380-382; V. V. Radlov. Opit slovarya turkskich narechiy. S-Pb., 1911,v. 1, p. 1961; Z M. Buniyatov. Azerbayjan ..., p. 173 61. V. F. Minorski.. Istoriya . . ., pp. 126,128,131,140,144; Z. V. Togan. Ibn Fadlan's. . ., pp. 156-157; M. Kalankatuatsi Ibid, p. 212; C. H. Mirwwde. Toponimi Azerbaydjana v sred-nevekovich arabskikh geograficheskich istochnikakh. Baku, 1988, p. 97-102 62. Diktionaire Universed De Historic et de geographic par Ch. Sami Bey Fraschery. Constantinopole. 1899, v. 6, p. 46-83 63. Z. M. Buniyatov. Ibid, p. 173 64. P. A. Shafarik. Drevnosti slavyan M., 1848, v. 1, book 2, p. 285 65. PVL. M., 1950, v. 1, p. 353; Polnoye sobraniye russkich letopisey / PSRL /. M., 1962, v. II, pp. 219,612,613; N. A. Baskakov. Turkskaya leksika . . ., p. 79; 0. Suleymenov. Az i Ya Alma-Ata, 1989, p. 565; 5'. A. Pletneva. Polovtsi M., 1990, pp. 50, 147, 156 66. R. Fray. Ibid, p. 116; Justi. Ibid, p. 143; V. I. Abayev. Ibid, p. 157; 0. Suleymenov. Ibi,. p. 565 67. F. Jalilov. Praazerbayjan teonimleri// Problemi izecheniya istochnikov po istorii Az-erbaydjana. Baku, 1989, pp. 94-96 68. 0. Suleymenov. Ibid, p. 565 69. 0. Suleymenov. Ibid, p. 565; Latino-russkiy slovar. M., 1986, p. 117; Tit Liviy. Isto-riya Rima ot osnovaniya goroda. M., 1989, t. 1, p. 10 70. Tit Liviy. Ibid, p. 12-13 77. Tit Liviy. Ibid, p. 546 72. Gerodot. Istoriya. tr. by G. A. Stratanovskiy. M., 1972,1, 196,V 73. K. Tatsit. Aimali. Maliye proizvedeniya. tr. by A. S. Bobovich. M., 1970, p. 372-373 74. Ibid. see kommentary 75. A. V. Podosinov. K voprosu o venedakh Pevtingerovoy karti// Vneshnaya politika Drevney Rusi. M., 19-23 fevralya 1988, Tezisi dokladov, M., 1988, pp. 73-78 76. M. Khorenskiy. Ibid, 55 77. lordan. Ibid, p. 90 78. Prokopiy. Ibid, p. 297 79. K. Tatsit. Ibid, p. 372; lordan. Ibid, p. 90; M. Khorenskiy. Ibid, p. 55; PVL. v. 1, p. 234 80. P. K. Kokovtsev. Yevreysko-khazarskaya perepiska L., 1932, p. 92; Hudud al-alam. p. 165; P. Golden. The people . .., p. 25; I. Kafesoglu. Bulgarlarin kokeni Istanbul. 1985, p. 15 81. Snorru Sturulson. Miadshaya Edda L., 1970, pp. 5,11,12. 82. Snorru Sturulson. Miadshaya Edda, see kommentary 83. Istoriya Drevnego Vostoka. pod red. V. Kwishina. M., 1979, p. 271; 0. R. Genri. Khetti. M., 1987, p. 37 84. V. I. Abayev. Ibid, pp. 33 85. N. A. Mesherskiy. Istoriya iudeyskoy voyni losifa Flaviya v drevnerusskom per-evode. M- L., 1958, p. 454; ft Pritsak. The Pecenegs// Archivum . . ., p. 229 86. Istoriya Drevnego Mira. pod red. A. G. Bokshanina. M., 1982, v. II, p. 333 87. Istoriya Yevropi. M., 1988, v. 1,p. 179 88. Ch. Kh. Mirwwde. Toponimi Azerbaydjana v srednevekovikh arabskikh geogra-ficheskikh istochnikakh. Baku, 1988, p. 61; /. G. Aliyev. Ochtrki istorii Atrapoteni Baku, 1989, p. 60 89. G. Geybullayev. Garabag / etnik ve siyasi tarikhine dair/ Baki, 1990, pp. 74-75 90. M. Seyidov. Ibid, p. 47 91. Y. B. Yusifov. Ob aktualnich problemakh . . ., pp. 21-31; Y. B. Yusifov. 0 nekotorikh yazikovikh elementakh turkskogo proiskhojdeniya v sochinenii albanskogo istorika// Sovetskaya turkologiya.1974, No 2, p. 71-79; F. Mamedova. K voprosu ob albanskom/kavkazskom etnose. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaydjanskoy SSR, 1989, .No 3, p. 110 92. Rizvan Rizvanov, Zabit Rhvanov. Istoriya lezgin. Makhachkala, 1992 93. Movses Kalankatuau. Istoriya strani Aluank. Yerevan, 1984, pp. 77, 150, 191 94. Mahmud al-Kaszari. Compedium . . . 95. F. Mamedova. Politicheskaya istoriya . . ., pp. 144-145 96. A. F. Alekperov. Saklabi. . ., pp. 33-36; A. F. Alekper. 0 proiskhojdenii etnonima . . ., pp. 32-41 97. Nizameddin Shami, Zafar name. by. Z. M. Bunyadov. Baki, 1992, pp. 14-15 98. Moisey Kalankaytuklu. Albaniya tarikhi.; Mkhitar Gosh. Alban salnamesi. Baki, 1993, p. 13; F. Mamedova. K voprosu .... p. 109 99. V. V. Latishev, Izvestiya drevnikh pisateley grecheskikh i latinskikh o Skifii i Kavkaze. S-Pb, 1893, v. 1,p. 12 100. Bakuvi. Kitab talkhis al-asar va ajaib al-malik al-kakhkhar. M., 1971, p. 112 101. K. V. Trever. Ocherki po istorii i kulture Kavkazskoy Albanii. M-L., 1959, pp. 5 -20.; Azerbayjan tarikhi. by Z. M. Buniyatov, Y. B. Yusifov. Baki, 1994, p. 145; Sara Ashurbeyli. Gosudarstvo. . . ,p. 57; A. F. Alekper. Isigia bagli bezi ishareler hagginda //Dil meselelerine aid tematik toplu, 2, Baki, 1994, pp. 54-58 102. Kemal Aliyev. Antichniye istochniki po istorii Azerbaydjana Baku. 1987, p. 123 103. A. F. Alekperov. Bog,Tsar,Jrets,Voin (God.King, Priest, Warrior)// Tarix ve onun problemleri, 2, 1999, pp. 50-55
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